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Sci TR-43

Updates: 11.05.2012 (Aybüke)

4.3 Near-IR

Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy - VISTA

VISTA is a 4-m class wide field survey telescope for the southern hemisphere located at ESO's Cerro Paranal Observatory in Chile, equipped with a near infrared camera (1.65 degree diameter field of view at VISTA's nominal pixel size) containing 67 Megapixels camera and 5 broad band filters at Z, Y, J, H, Ks and a narrow band filter at 1.18 micron.

VHS - VISTA Hemisphere Survey - (PI Richard McMahon; Cambridge)

The VHS will image the entire ~20 000 square degrees of the Southern Sky, with the exception of the areas already covered by the VIKING and VVV surveys, in J and Ks. The resulting data will be about 4 magnitudes deeper than 2MASS and DENIS. The 5000 square degrees covered by the Dark Energy Survey (DES), another imaging survey scheduled to begin in 2010 at the CTIO 4 metre Blanco telescope, will also be observed in H-band. The area around both of the Galactic Caps will be observed in Y- and H- band as well to be combined with the data from the VST ATLAS survey. The main science drivers of the VHS include: examining low mass and nearby stars, studying the merger history of the Galaxy, measuring the properties of Dark Energy through the examination of large-scale structure to a redshift of ~1, and searches for high redshift quasars.

VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations Survey - VIDEO - (PI Matt Jarvis; Hertfordshire)

VIDEO is a 12 square degree Z, Y, J, H, Ks survey to study galaxy evolution as a function of epoch and environment to redshift of ~4 using active galactic nuclei, galaxy cluster evolution, and very massive galaxies. The survey comprises three fields: the Chandra Deep Field South, 4.5 square degrees of the XMM-Newton Large-Scale Structure Survey, a field of the European Large-Area ISO Survey. The width and area of VIDEO are intermediate between the wide but relatively shallow VIKING survey and the small, but very deep, Ultra-VISTA.

VISTA Kilo-Degree Infrared Galaxy Survey (VIKING; PI: Will Sutherland (Cambridge))

The VIKING survey provides an important complement to the optical KIDS project. VIKING will image the same 1500 square degrees of the sky in Z, Y, J, H, and Ks to a limiting magnitude 1.4 mag deeper than the UKIDSS Large Area Survey. The near-infrared data will be used in the determination of very accurate photometric redshifts, especially at z > 1, an important step in the weak lensing analysis and the observation of baryon acoustic oscillations. Other science drivers include the hunt for high redshift quasars, galaxy clusters, and the study of galaxy stellar masses.

The survey region may be modified slightly as the survey progresses but the nominal RA and Dec limits are shown below:

 SGP:     22h00 < RA < 03h30,  -36 < Dec < -26 deg. 
 NGP:     10h00 < RA < 15h30,   -5 < Dec < +4 deg 
 GAMA09:  08h36 < RA < 09h24,   -2 < Dec < +3 deg. 

UltraVISTA - (Jim Dunlop, Edinburgh; Marijn Franx, Leiden; Johan Fynbo (Copenhagen), Olivier LeFèvre, Marseilles)

Ultra-VISTA aims to image one patch of the sky (the COSMOS field) over and over again to unprecedented depths. The survey will use the Y, J, H, and Ks broadband filters along with one narrow-band filter specifically designed to study Lyman-a emitters at redshift 8.8, of which ~30 are expected to be found with this survey. The science goals of Ultra-VISTA include studying the first galaxies, the stellar mass build-up during the peak epoch of star formation activity, and dust obscured star formation.

NOAO Extremely Wide-Field Infrared Imager - NEWFIRM

28x28 arcmin FoV imager; covering 1-2.4 microns at 0.4"/pixel; mounted on 4-m NOAO telescope.

This detector is decommissioned at the moment. It may however be a good starting detector for DAG if an agreement with the NOAO could be made.

Updates: 10.05.2012 (Korhan)

4meter-Multi Object Spectroscopic Telescope - 4MOST

  • 4meter-Multi Object Spectroscopic Telescope Survey will be used with VISTA or NTT
  • for follow-up observations of GAIA, eROSITA, EUCLID
  • ESO final decision in 2013
  • PPT

Updates: 11.05.2012 (Aliş)

ESO New Technology Telescope - NTT

The ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) is an Alt-Az, 3.58m Richey-Chretien telescope which pioneered the use of active optics. The telescope and its enclosure had a revolutionary design for optimal image quality.

The ESO New Technology Telescope, NTT, was commissioned in 1989, and completely upgraded in 1997 (Big Bang). It has an alt-az mounting, and two Nasmyth focii, which host two instruments. SUSI2 is mounted on Nasmyth A, while since 21 June 2008 EFOSC2 is mounted on Nasmyth B. The pointing error is about 1.5" RMS, but degradation occurs close to zenith and at zenith angle larger than 60 degrees. The pointing is limited to 70deg. zenithal distance, and 3 degrees from zenith.

NTT uses Sofi as the spectro-imager in the NIR regime (1-2.5 microns)

James-Webb Space Telescope - JWST

NASA, ESA, CSA space mission. To be launched in 2018.

EUCLID

ESA space mission to be launched in 2019

Near – Infrared Sky Surveyor (NIRSS)

The Near-Infrared Sky Surveyor (NIRSS) is a new mission concept, still in the early days of formulation (pre-phaseA), based on the requirements of ASTRO2010 decadal survey report, New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (NWNH). An assessment report was prepared for whether it will be a counterpart project to the EUCLID or not.

NIRSS will deeply map the entire sky at near-infrared wavelengths by using a 1.5-meter telescope to reach full-sky 0.2 µjy (25.6 mag AB) sensitivities in four pass-bands from 1 to 4 µm (J, H, K, L bands) in a 4-yr mission. NIRSS will be ~3000 times more sensitive than 2MASS, ~500 times more sensitive WISE, 10 times deeper than VISTA-VIDEO and 5 times deeper than VLT with slightly better spatial resolution and across the full sky. It will be also well matched to the next generation of deep (~0.1 µJy), wide area (>2π ster), ground-based optical surveys (LSST and PAN-STARSS). While ultra-deep infrared images have only recently been obtained over small areas, NIRSS will build on these achievements by providing ultra-deep near-infrared images across the entire sky.

The Astro2010 Decadal Survey gave its highest recommendation in the large-scale space mission category to WFIRST, a Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope with both imaging and spectroscopy capabilities. WFIRST includes science objectives in exoplanet exploration, dark energy research and galactic and extragalactic surveys by using a combination of three proposed telescopes: the Microlensing Planet Finder (MPF), the Joint Dark Energy Mission/Omega (JDEM-Omega) and the Near-Infrared Sky Surveyor (NIRSS).


Fig-4.3-1. Left panel: Depth at 2.2μm vs. area for NIRSS and various ground-based surveys. Right panel: Sensitivity vs. wavelength. NIRSS will complement the next generation of deep ground-based surveys (ASTRO2010_NIRSS – Daniel Stern).

As shown in Fig.1, when NIRSS is launched, it will be quite powerful survey rather than other ground base like VISTA, UKIDSS, etc. or space projects like 2MASS, WISE, etc.


Table-4.3-1. Predicted numbers of high-redshifts.

Especially for the high redshift objects, due to NIRSS cover all sky deeply, it will detect large number of objects back in time when compared with 4m class telescope surveys. DAG project is also planned as the same class telescope like UKIDSS or VISTA. Furthermore, other current and planned space-based infrared missions either have too small of a FOV (e.g., JWST), work too far into the infrared (e.g. SPITZER and WISE) or do not work sufficiently far into the near-infrared background from primordial stars.


Fig-4.3-2. The point source sensitivity of various planned weak gravitational lensing surveys: LSST (red), WFIRST deep (blue) and Euclid wide (green). Magnitudes are defined so that fainter objects have larger magnitudes. LSST, Euclid’s broad band optical images, and WFIRST deep survey will be able to see fainter galaxies than Euclid’s wide survey. The WFIRST deep survey goes deeper, but the Euclid survey covers a much larger area. SOURCE: Courtesy of Chris Hirata, California Institute of Technology.

LSST will improve photometric redshifts for well-detected galaxies at z>1 whereas NIRSS will study very clearly around z~4.

Scaling from the VISTA and UKIDSS programs, which will be shallower than NIRSS over <0.1% of the sky using dedicated multi-year surveys on 4-meter class telescopes, full-sky near-infrared images at the 0.2μJy depth would require a network of hundreds of 4-m class telescopes operating for nearly a decade. Although NIRSS can push the limits, it's still a concept mission besides EUCLID.

Filters:

J, H, K', K, Ks, HeI, Pa gamma, Pa beta, (:cell PQA(PSS(FeII):), CO band, K cont. http://www.caha.es/CAHA/Instruments/IRCAM/MAGIC/Technical/Technical.html

References

WFIRST
WFIRST_program
NRC_Euclid_Study_Report
ASTRO2010_NIRSS

What can be done with DAG

DAG can help extending the existing VISTA survey fields with observations at the northern hemisphere. However without an extremely large field of view, it is obvious that DAG can not do "time resolved survey observations" of the whole or a large part of the survey. However, a NIR survey of the SDSS fields above +60 degrees declination may be very useful.

For the other satellites mentioned above best would be to obtain follow-up observations including imaging and and spectroscopic observations. Furthermore optical observing capability may turn out to be very useful for the follow-up observations of some of the infrared satellites.

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